Causes and Treatment for Abnormal Bleeding

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The normal menstrual cycle occurs every twenty-one to thirty-five days, lasting between three to seven days. Bleeding for more than seven days, heavy periods, or in between your monthly periods is abnormal bleeding. Sometimes abnormal bleeding is harmless, but it can also be a sign of cancer or conditions that might cause infertility. Hormonal imbalances are the most common cause of abnormal bleeding. Your specialist, Dr. John Gomes Garden City, can diagnose the cause of your abnormal bleeding through symptoms or diagnostic tests.

Causes of abnormal bleeding

Hormonal imbalance:

Estrogen and progesterone are the hormones that control your menstrual cycle. If they become imbalanced, you can experience spotting or heavy bleeding. Several factors can cause hormonal imbalance, including dysfunctional ovaries, issues with thyroid glands, and starting or stopping birth control methods. It is common to have abnormal bleeding in the first three months after hormonal contraceptives.

Pregnancy complications:

Miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy can cause bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy happens when a fertilized egg implants in your fallopian tube instead of your uterus. Spotting does not always mean you have a miscarriage. Contact your healthcare provider immediately if you experience any vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.


Abnormal uterine bleeding can indicate early signs of endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is common in your mid-sixties past menopause. It can be treated if the condition is diagnosed in the early stages. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia can cause endometrial cancer. You can also have cancer in the vagina, uterus, cervix, or ovaries leading to abnormal bleeding.

Uterine conditions:

Physical conditions in your uterus can lead to abnormal bleeding. Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous growths that develop in the uterus and mainly occur during the childbearing period. Polyps are also non-cancerous growths and can grow on your uterus or cervix. Heavy bleeding can result from adenomyosis, a condition where cells similar to those that grow in the uterus lining develop in the uterus muscle.


An infection in your reproductive organs can cause abnormal bleeding or inflammation. Pelvic inflammatory inflammation, which causes inflammation of reproductive organs, can lead to scarring. Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea can cause abnormal bleeding.

Treatment for abnormal bleeding

Medications: Birth control pills can help control bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists can temporarily minimize bleeding by stopping ovulation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists can control heavy bleeding caused by fibroids.


There are various surgical procedures that can treat abnormal uterine bleeding, including:

Hysteroscopy: This procedure involves your specialist removing structures like fibroids or polyps in your uterus.

Uterine artery embolization:

Your provider stops blood flow to your fibroids, making them shrink.


This treatment is where your doctor removes fibroids without touching your uterus. You can conceive after this procedure.

Endometrial ablation:

Your doctor uses a laser, heat, or electricity to destroy the lining of your uterus. You cannot have this treatment if you want to get pregnant.


This technique involves removing your entire uterus. Hysterectomy mainly treats cancer or cancerous abnormalities in your endometrium.

Abnormal bleeding can result from hormonal imbalance, infections, or uterine issues. There are various treatment techniques for abnormal bleeding, depending on the cause. Schedule an appointment at Women’s Healthcare of Garden City for abnormal bleeding treatment to improve your quality of life.